A new preliminary genetic analysis suggests that the current Ebola the epidemic in Guinea may stem from a survivor of the 2014-2016 West African crisis Ebola epidemic, rather than animal-to-human transmission.
According to pre-printing report, the epidemic probably started with the survivor infecting a sexual partner with the deadly virus by sperm – after the virus has been dormant in humans for at least 5 years.
The analysis, posted online Friday, was conducted by scientists from Guinea, the Pasteur Institute in Senegal, the University of Nebraska Medical Center, the University of Edinburgh and the company PraesensBio.
The previous Ebola outbreak resulted in 28,000 cases and 11,000 deaths, mostly in Guinea, Liberia and Sierra Leone, according to the new report. The current outbreak in Guinea has resulted in 18 cases and killed nine people, according to The New York Times.
The news is “disappointing,” said William Schaffner, MD, epidemiologist of communicable diseases and pandemic preparation expert at Vanderbilt University in Nashville.
“Who would have thought that the Ebola virus could sit dormant in a person – a man – for 5 years and then trigger another epidemic?” Schaffner said. “Until this news arrived, I think we all thought this latest Ebola outbreak was the result of an introduction by an animal species.”
“This gives a whole new public health resonance to the notion that male Ebola survivors are a potential reservoir for this infection for many years,” he said.
The new report raises the question, he said, whether some of Africa’s past epidemics were not introduced from nature, but instead happened because a survivor initiated the infection. at a partner.
The particular danger of the virus sleeping in the testes, rather than the eye or in the nervous system, it could be transmitted to someone sexually, Schaffner said.
The results of the DNA analysis could exacerbate the stigma of survivors, he said.
It also raises the question of whether vaccinations are needed in equatorial Africa, he said.
Moreover, even though Ebola vaccines are very effective, he said, it is not known how long they could protect people.
Another public health measure could further promote condom use, he says, that comes with its own set of difficulties.
In light of this latest news, male survivors will come under the research spotlight, Schaffner said, and volunteers will be asked to provide semen samples to find out if this is a one-time event or something. something that happens commonly.
Michael Ryan, MD, executive director of the World Health Organization (WHO) Health Emergencies Program, said in a briefing Friday that the WHO sent more than 30,000 doses of vaccine to the country.